May. 20, 2019
The original wild mangos were small fruits with scant, fibrous flesh, and it is believed
that natural hybridization has taken place between M. indica and M. sylvatica Roxb. in
Southeast Asia. Selection for higher quality has been carried on for 4,000 to 6,000 years
and vegetative propagation for 400 years.
Over 500 named varieties (some say 1,000) have evolved and have been described in India.
Perhaps some are duplicates by different names, but at least 350 are propagated in commercial
nurseries. In 1949, K.C. Naik described 82 varieties grown in South India. L.B. and R.N. Singh
presented and illustrated 150 in their monograph on the mangos of Uttar Pradesh (1956). In 1958,
24 were described as among the important commercial types in India as a whole, though in the
various climatic zones other cultivars may be prominent locally. Of the 24, the majority are
classed as early or mid-season:
Florida mangos are classed in 4 groups:
- 'Bombay Yellow' ('Bombai')-high quality
- 'Malda' ('Bombay Green')
- '01our' (polyembryonic)-a heavy bearer.
- 'Safdar Pasand'
- 'Suvarnarekha' ('Sundri')
Early to Mid-Season:
- 'Alampur Baneshan' -high quality but shy bearer
- 'Alphonso' ('Badami', 'gundu', 'appas', 'khader')-high quality
- 'Bangalora' ('Totapuri', 'collection', 'kili-mukku', abu Samada' in the Sudan)-of highest quality, best keeping, regular bearer, but most susceptible to seed weevil.
- 'Banganapally' ('Baneshan', 'chaptai', 'Safeda')-of high quality but shy bearer
- 'Dusehri' ('Dashehari aman', 'nirali aman', 'kamyab')-high quality
- 'Gulab Khas'
- 'K.O. 11'
Mid- to Late-Season:
- 'Rumani' (often bearing an off-season crop)
- 'Samarbehist' ('Chowsa', 'Chausa', 'Khajri')-high quality
- 'K.O. 7/5' ('Himayuddin' 'Neelum')
- 'Fazli' ('Fazli malda')-high quality
- 'Safeda Lucknow'
- 'Mulgoa'-high quality but a shy bearer
- 'Neelum' (sometimes twice a year)-somewhat dwarf, of indifferent quality, and anthracnose-susceptible.
In general, mangos from the Philippines ('Carabao') and Thailand ('Saigon', 'Cambodiana') behave better in Florida's humidity than the Indian varieties.
- Indian varieties, mainly monoembryonic, introduced in the past and maintained mostly in
collections; typically of somewhat "turpentine" character.
- Philippine and Indo-Chinese types, largely polyembryonic, non-turpentiney, fiberless,
fairly anthracnose-resistant. Scattered in dooryard plantings.
- West Indian/South American mangos, especially 'Turpentine' and 'No.11' and the superior
'Julie' from Trinidad, 'Madame Francis' from Haiti, 'Itamaraca' from Brazil. These are non-commercial.
- Florida-originated selections or cultivars, of which many have risen and declined over the decades.